Medical Imaging and Digital Image Processing
Introduction to Medical Imaging Systems: Computerised tomography, magnetic tomography, endoscopic systems, ultrasound devices. Medical image reconstruction methods: image reconstruction algorithms (single projection, filtered back projection, repetitive algorithms), artefacts in the reconstructed images, 3D tomography. Axial tomography: Physical principles, X-ray axial tomography devices, data retrieval geometry, tomographic image reconstruction, helicoid axial tomograph. Nuclear medicine and SPECT tomography: radiopharmaceuticals, Anger Camera, principles of operation, devices and SPECT image reconstruction. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): physical principles, radiopharmaceuticals, devices, image reconstruction, clinical applications. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): Principles, Bloch equation solutions, tracing devices, pulse series, relaxation processes and their measurement, NMR imaging equation. Ultrasound (US) Imaging Techniques: physical principles, sound production and tracing, pulse-echo ultrasound imaging, real time ultrasound imaging, Doppler ultrasound imaging, ultrasound tomography, ultrasound imaging techniques evaluation. Diffraction tomography: projections in diffraction tomography, approximate solutions of the wave equation, the Fourier diffraction theorem, reconstruction algorithms. Interaction between Radio Frequency electromagnetic waves and biological tissue: electrical properties of biological tissue, biological effects of electromagnetic waves, dosimetry features and safety limits for electromagnetic waves exposure.